Emissions and Ground-Level Ozone in Central Texas
High ground-level ozone concentrations in Central Texas are the result of a complex interaction of emissions and meteorology.
- Ground-level ozone is not emitted directly, but rather, is formed through chemical reactions between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
- There are both anthropogenic (man-made) and biogenic (naturally occurring) sources of NOx and VOC emissions
- In some areas such as Central Texas, high ground-level ozone concentrations are more influenced by NOx emissions, and in other areas, they are more influenced by VOC emissions
- Ground-level ozone concentrations are influenced by long-range pollution transport:
- Ozone levels in Central Texas would be about 27 ppb in 2017 without any biogenic or anthropogenic emissions from the U.S.
- Biogenic emissions contribute about 4-5 ppb
- Anthropogenic emissions in the U.S. outside of Texas contribute about 10-11 ppb
- Anthropogenic Texas sources, including the Austin-Round Rock metro area, contributes about 20-22 ppb
- On high ozone days, the "background" ozone level before emissions from the Austin-Round Rock metro area are added is about 59-61 ppb
- CAPCOG estimates that anthropogenic emissions from the Austin-Round Rock metro area contributed 8 ppb to the region's 2013-2015 design value of 68 ppb
NOx v. VOC Emissions
NOx emissions are generated primarily from anthropogenic combustion sources, while VOC emissions are generated primarily from vegetation.
- NOx emissions contribute about 30-40 times more to high ozone levels in the Austin-Round Rock metro area than VOC emissions
- Peak ozone levels in Travis County are 40-140 times more responsive to reductions in local anthropogenic NOx emissions than they are to reductions in local anthropogenic VOC emissions
- It would take a reduction of about 10-13 tons per day of local NOx emissions (a 11-14% reduction) to achieve a 1 ppb reduction in peak ozone levels
- Eliminating all local anthropogenic VOC emissions would only achieve about a 0.3 ppb reduction in peak ozone levels
NOx Emissions by Source
As the figure below shows, about 3/4 of the typical ozone season weekday NOx emissions in the region are from on-road and non-road mobile sources, with the rest coming from large point sources and smaller stationary "area" sources.
- Average = 87.00 tons per day (tpd) of NOx in 2014
- Personal vehicles (cars, SUVs, pickups): 23.09 tpd of NOx
- Medium-duty and heavy-duty trucks: 17.35 tpd of NOx
- Construction and mining equipment: 10.62 tpd of NOx
- Agricultural equipment: 6.93 tpd of NOx
- Oil and gas production: 4.94 tpd of NOx
- Local power plants: 4.00 tpd of NOx
- Trains: 2.76 tpd of NOx